Chewing Insects
 Page One

Longicorn Beetle

Of the Order Coleoptera: Family Cerambycidae
It not the beetle in the adult stage that does the damage but the larval stage where is bores into the centre of the stem consuming the plant tissue inside. These beetles vary in size from 5 to 60 mm.
Most are brown or grey & all have the same basic shape.
The sides of these beetles are fairly straight & they appear to have square shoulders.
And the atennae are very long.
Eggs are layed in the cracks in the bark.
The larvae are cream coloured & have no obvious legs & are broader at the head than the rear.

Longicorn Larvae
 Size: X 10.

Longicorn Larvae Damage & The Entrance Hole
Size: X 2.0
Note:The most common indicator of there presence is the accumilation of sawdust like material called, Frass around the entrance to the bored hole.
On close inspection when the stem is disected the frass can be seen packed tightly within the tunnel.
When the Hibiscus is attacked the growing tip above the entry hole wilts quite suddenly.

The larval stage of Butterflies & Moths 
members of the second largest insect order, Lepidoptera. They are outnumbered only by the beetles. The Latin name refers to the scale-covered, membranous wings common to all species. Most adult Lepidoptera are additionally characterized by a pair of well-developed compound eyes; mouthparts consisting of a long, coiled sucking tube, or proboscis; and prominent antennae.

Lepidoptera undergo complete metamorphosis . Four stages make up the full life cycle: egg, larva (caterpillar),  pupa (cocoon or chrysalis), and adult. After mating, the adult females of most Lepidoptera usually lay eggs on a plant that serves as the food source for the larvae when they hatch. In a few species, however, the larvae are predators. Some butterfly caterpillars, for example, eat aphids; some form complex associations with ants, live in their nests, and eat ant larvae. Some larvae eat stored cereals or even woolen clothes. Larvae have rather elastic cylindrical bodies, simple eyes, chewing mouthparts, three pairs of true legs on the thorax, and usually five pairs of prolegs on the abdomen. They eat continuously, periodically shedding their skin as they grow to hundreds of times their original size, and finally reach the stage where they spin cocoons and become pupae. During pupation the structures of the larvae totally transform; internal systems are reorganized and adult external structures develop.
Adult butterflies and moths feed on a wide variety of substances: nectar, pollen, rotting fruit, carrion, dung, urine, and other plant and animal exudates. Most Lepidoptera actively seek nectar from flowering plants, effectively carrying pollen from plant to plant and thus aiding in plant reproduction. In many species, such as sulfur butterflies ( Colias ), egg production is impossible without nectar meals. In others, such as the checkerspot butterflies ( Euphydryas ), unfed females lay about half as many eggs as those provided nectar. A few adult moths do not have functional mouthparts and lay all their eggs without obtaining nourishment.
Habitats and Range.

Larvae of butterflies and moths are usually found feeding on a single species or a few related species of plants. As a result of this close relationship, many Lepidoptera species are isolated in colonies in particular habitats. Other species may be more wide-ranging, especially those that lay eggs on widely distributed or weedy plants. A few butterflies, including the well-known Monarch Butterfly may migrate thousands of kilometers to spend the winter in large aggregations at select sites. In some Lepidoptera, competition between larvae for host plants produces population cycles; large populations may build and then "crash," with most individuals dying.

Size: X 1.0
In other Lepidoptera, changes in population size are primarily due to climatic conditions.
Butterflies and moths are found in a wide variety of habitats, from tundra to rain forest and from below sea level to nearly 6000 m (nearly 20,000 ft) in elevation. In tropical areas, where the Lepidoptera reach their greatest diversity, many butterflies may fly throughout the year. Continual good weather and ample resources allow for rapid larval development and long adult life, and as many as 15 generations may occur in one year. In temperate habitats, however, Lepidoptera enter an in active stage, or diapause, during their development, to avoid severe weather conditions. Diapause may occur in the egg, larval, pupal, or adult stage. In snowy climates, winter hibernation is common; in areas with hot, dry seasons, summer diapause (estivation) is the rule. Larval development is generally slower in temperate areas, and an adult's life span is often only a few days or weeks. In alpine or arctic habitats, growing seasons may be so short that many species require two years for development.

No absolutely consistent characteristics exist for separating butterflies and moths. Butterflies generally have scaleless, threadlike antennae with a club on the end. Wings are often brightly colored, and the wing color and pattern play a key role in mate recognition and courtship. Nearly all butterflies fly during daylight, but some tropical species fly at dawn or dusk, and a few are nocturnal. About 18,000 species are known worldwide. The largest butterflies (bird wings of Melanesia) have wingspans of up to 25 cm (10 in); the smallest (pygmy blues) may barely exceed 1 cm (0.4 in).
Moths have a wide variety of antennae forms, often feathery in appearance. Although many moths, especially day-flying ones, are brightly colored, most are dull shades of brown. Males are often attracted to females by a powerful chemical signal called  Pheromones that the females release from special glands. Most moths fly at night, although many also fly during the day, especially in colder climates where evening temperatures often drop to freezing. (Their apparent attraction to a light source at night is a reflex; wing motion on the side struck by the light is reduced, causing them to turn in that direction.) More than 130,000 moth species have been named, and many more probably exist. The largest moths ( Attacus of Asia) may exceed 30 cm (12 in) in wingspan; the wings of the smallest (Microlepidoptera) may span only a number of millimeters.

Size: X .50
The colors and patterns of the wings of butterflies and moths help to protect the organisms against predators. Some species possess eyespots or other markings that draw the attention of enemies away from vital body parts to the wings. In many species, cryptic coloration-wings looking like the natural background of soil, bark, and leaves-provides camouflage, protecting Lepidoptera from visually hunting predators.
The most intricate evolution is exhibited by butterflies with particularly bright or warning coloration. Some of these species deposit in their own tissues toxic chemicals from larval host plants that make them distasteful or poisonous to vertebrates. Butterflies of this sort are often marked with yellow, orange, or red on a dark background to warn predators of their unpalatability. In many locations, especially in tropical areas, edible butterflies and moths have evolved wing patterns mimicking inedible species and thus gaining protection themselves. This has been called Batesian mimicry, after its discoverer, the English naturalist and explorer Henry Bates (1825-92). Another type of association, Muellerian mimicry, occurs where several distasteful species fly together, sharing a similar warning coloration and presumably reducing predation on each individual species by giving predators fewer patterns to remember.
Moth species are among the most destructive pests of crops and stored products; very few butterfly species, however, attack economically important plants. Long studied by amateurs, who have produced a large body of biological and distributional information, butterflies have become a key test group for ecological and evolutionary research. They are particularly amenable to laboratory analysis of a genetic nature, are easily monitored in the field, and are thought to be representative of most herbivorous insects, humanity's most important competitors for food. They also serve as key indicator species of environmental disruption.

Assorted Caterpillers Attacking Plants Differently
 Size: (Approximately) X  0.5
Caterpiller Damage On Different Parts Of Hibiscus
Size: X 1.0
 Note: The varied forms of damage that is inflicted upon the Hibiscus & also the varied plant parts that differtent species have preference to.
Caterpiller Droppings
Size: X 10.0
Note: some times the frass can be seen when the larvae cannot & a keen eye may by the observance of the frass & the damage inflicted,  establish the presence of the pest.


 Caterpiller Spinning
Size: X 5.0
Caterpiller In Transistion Stage (Chrysalis)
To A Moth Or Butterfly
Size: X 50.0
Size: X 2.0
Monarch Butterfly
Size: X 1.0
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